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Looking though History Backwards - Polygamy Part 2

Updated: Dec 28, 2022

Almost all histories relating to Mormon polygamy are written in a way that contextualizes all points of data into one seamless narrative looking backward. However, there is value is approaching understanding the history chronologically. Let’s start with the contemporary evidence that Joseph Smith enticed women into polygamy. It comes from four primary sources:

  1. In 1838 some had overheard Oliver Cowdery accuse Joseph Smith of a "filthy, nasty scrape" with [1]Fanny Alger, a house maid, in Kirtland, in 1833. Joseph was exonerated of the charge by the Farr West High Council, and Oliver was excommunicated, but due more to his criticisms of the leadership than these alleged rumors. While not considered a polygamist wife at first, decades later, rumors from others expanded on the story and set the polygamy timeline to 1834 and earlier.

  2. Joseph was accused by [1]Nancy Rigdon and [2]Sarah Pratt of marriage proposals which they turned down through the medium of John C Bennett. Rigdon’s proposal was given in a letter in Willard Richard’s handwriting. Pratt gave conflicting testimonies of inappropriate advances by Joseph but was also tied up in an affair with Bennett while Pratt was on a mission. Decades later she divorced Orson Pratt and became an anti-polygamy crusader. Most historians prattle on about the reliability of Bennett's and [3]Pratt's exposés because of the flip-flops and inconsistencies, and the wild inventions that [4]Bennett associated with Mormon polygamy that are non-existent in any version of Mormonism.

  3. [5]Martha Brotherton accused Brigham Young and Joseph of enticing her into marriage with Brigham. Joseph took to the papers, calling her a whore and a liar.

  4. [6]William and Jane law accused Joseph Smith of polygamy due to Joseph's purported advances on Jane, the event which set up the events that led to his death.

It was not uncommon in mid 19th century America to have rumors of indiscretion hurled at leaders and celebrities to shame or defame. In several of these instances, the accusers were themselves found in adultery and their accusations may have been a way for them to deflect the attention. Joseph Smith denied these accusations and often attacked the attackers in the papers and in public. Joseph Smith may have felt like he had to protect his secrets by retaliating against the character of these women and men and outright denying their claims. Or he was lashing out for the fear of being exposed as a cad. Or perhaps he was condemning them against false witness. All are possibilities. Whether the claims of sexual advances are accurate or not, the response, while typical of 19th century retorts against slander, did not help his cause, and it cast aspersions on women who may have been pawns by the likes of Bennett and others in a larger shell game. Again, the lesson from the Savior here is in the Beatitudes in [8]Matthew:

"Blessed are you when others revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account. Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you."

And then there is the warning of "But I tell you that anyone who is angry with a brother or sister will be subject to judgment. Again, anyone who says to a brother or sister, 'Raca,' is answerable to the court. And anyone who says, 'You fool!' will be in danger of the fire of hell."

Cultural hindsight gives us a platform of judgment, so we cannot always know the context, but given our platform, we must realize that women in the 19th Century were treated as chattel in many instances. They had very little in the sense of rights. Compassion towards them would have been a better response, regardless of the truth of the accusation. In terms of agency, theirs was a world devoid of much agency. Thus, if there is any real scoundrel here, the lion's share must fall upon the men. Joseph Smith's public behavior against these accusations at this time cannot escape scrutiny. He could have handled it better.

William Law

But it doesn’t mean his accusers were telling the truth. In two instances, Pratt’s and Rigdon’s, the accusations were at least partly withdrawn. William Law presents an interesting challenge that’s hard to dispute, but since we don’t have a recording of the verbiage given to Jane or William Law from Joseph, we must infer the context primarily from the [9]Nauvoo Expositor. We do know the Laws, among others, were against Joseph Smith, and had been for some time, at first because of property disputes, and later, secret teachings and theology. It's possible Law was invited into the secret system in order to showcase its innocence and Law either misinterpreted the invitation, or deliberately misrepresented it. The closest we ever get to a true contemporary smoking gun is William Law. But even he has flaws due to the interest in Law wanting to create his own church and power structure.

For these reasons, we cannot hold the contemporary rumors as iron-clad evidence of Joseph’s guilt. The extent to which he denied it, fought against it, and publicly condemned it, must be taken into consideration when judging this event at the beginning. At this point it's a case of he-said she-said.

At the end, because of the Laws' testimonies, Joseph ordered the Nauvoo Expositor destroyed, setting up the events that led to his death. However, the response from Joseph when he ordered the printing press destroyed could have been to shut down the lying rumors as much as trying to silence someone telling the truth. It can't really help us nail down the truth of Nauvoo polygamy.

Many are familiar with recollections given by Brigham Young and other Utah Mormons, peeking behind the secret curtain of Joseph's mind years later. But we have to compare that against statements contrary to that by the Smith family and others who stayed behind. They maintain that his public statements were closer to the truth. [10]William Marks, then President of the High Council in Nauvoo, illuminated in 1853 that Joseph Smith was possibly considering giving up (or exposing) the secret ordinances, quorums, and councils right before he died, essentially realizing that these secret systems weren't working, that were they being misinterpreted at best, bastardized by Judases at worst. Perhaps Joseph was repenting of this folly at the time of his death and his “friends” turned on him to keep the secrets hidden, just as they swore to do in their oaths. We may never know. But there are a million options open to us if we just look at evidence prior to 1850.

After Mormon polygamy was openly admitted in 1852, the slow race to determine the legacy of polygamy and its origins came from a context of conspiracy, rumor, controversy, denial, and obfuscation by many of his followers and inheritors to a drip-drip of later testimonies and affidavits that place him at the head of the practice. Thus we get an ever expanding rabbit hole that culminated in a set narrative by LDS Mormons at the turn of the 20th Century. We need to determine how much of the late entries are helpful in filling in the gaps.

Here are the most pertinent facts in a chronological fashion as it relates to Joseph’s polygamy, presented in a way that simplifies the rabbit hole as much as possible to the lay reader. Anything that is revealed late is put into italics and gives the best date of discovery.

  • 1830 - The Book of Mormon condemns polygamy in [11]Jacob 2, except for in the cases of raising up seed ostensibly (although that is also up to interpretation as it could be read that it’s never approved).

  • 1831 - Joseph sends missionaries – [12]Joseph sends missionaries to the Native Americans and they are told to take additional wives (1860’s). WW Phelps (later recollection)

  • 1832 - Brigham Young preaches among the Cochrainites in [13]Maine in (1890’s) – This sect was known for practicing “spriritual wifery.” [14]Cochrain teachings on polygamy including: Using the term, “spiritual wifery.”, permission to have a polygamous relationship must come through the spiritual leader, wives could be assigned and sometimes swapped, foot washing rituals that are similar to later Mormon Second Anointing rituals, and a Garden of Eden ceremony.

  • 1833 - Joseph Marries/Affairs/Courts [15]Fanny Alger in 1833 – This rumor begins in 1838 during Oliver Cowdery’s excommunication trial, where others stated that Oliver described Joseph’s situation with Alger as that “filthy, dirty, nasty scrape,” wherein Oliver is accused of bearing false witness and Joseph is acquitted of the situation. Joseph wanted it on record that his entanglements with Alger were not “adulterous.” Decades later, Emma is said to have spied on the “transaction” in the barn, according to William McLellan. This could have been a spiritual ceremony or romp in the hay. Even later, this gets amplified into a polygamous marriage by Mosiah Hancock.

  • 1834 - Brigham Young takes a second wife after his first wife dies – [16]Mary Ann Angel

  • 1834/35 - Brigham Young travels to [17]Maine alone to Maine for a conference. He later marries one of the women from that area, Augusta Cobb in 1845, who was part of the group he visited.

  • 1835 - [18]D&C 101 is adopted (now removed in LDS editions) cementing monogamy as doctrine

  • 1836 - Apostles attend second conference in Maine - [19]

  • 1840 - Brigham Young’s purported affair in England – [20]As reported by an RLDS Authority in 1892

  • 1840 - [21]William Clayton performs Cochrainite rituals on Sarah Crooks in England who he later tried to make a polygamous wife. (Journal entry, some lined redacted)

  • 1840 [22]Heber C Kimball possibly takes second wife in England, Sarah Noon Peak ahead of the 1842 historical date

  • 1840 [23]Brigham Young and [24]Lorenzo Snow admit to having own polygamous revelations before hearing about it from Joseph Smith (BY 1874, LS 1899)

  • 1841 - [25]Joseph Smith takes his first plural wife, Louisa Beaman - Noted in the 1890’s Temple Lot Case

  • 1841 - [26]Joseph Smith takes his first polyandrous wife, Zina Huntington – noted in Huntington’s testimony and journals decades later

  • 1842 - [27]Joseph Smith accused of making a failed proposal to Nancy Rigdon. There are some disputations as to whether this occurred as it happened through correspondence and has John C Bennet involved in the messiness.

  • May/June 1842 - John C Bennett Disfellowshipped and Excommunicated[28]. This was the first open incident dealing with polygamy and spiritual wifery in the open. Affected Chauncy Higbee as well, who was excommunicated. They teach the policy was advocated and taught by Joseph Smith, which he denies. Joseph [29]goes to court to clear his name, setting himself up for a perjury charge if he’s wrong.

  • June 1842 - Brigham Young marries [30]Lucy Ann Decker – First plural wife

  • July 1842 - Joseph proposes “marriage” to [31]Sarah Pratt, Orson’s wife – At one time she denies it was sexual, then recants later in life when she becomes an ardent anti-polygamist. She was also involved with Bennett sexually at the time and part of his expose against the Saints.

  • July 1842 – Joseph writes to [32]Sarah Ann Whitney about a visit with her and her parents and keeping it hidden from Emma; some feel the note seems to invite conjugal relations. It could also indicate he was in hiding and Emma was a key to his safety from bounty hunters who were trying to kidnap and extradite him to Missouri.

  • August 1842 – 350 Church elders travel to distribute information claiming Joseph Smith was NOT a polygamist. [33]Relief Society manifesto against polygamy.

  • September 1842 - Times and Seasons [34]condemns polygamy - “All legal contracts of marriage made before a person is baptized into this church, should be held sacred and fulfilled. Inasmuch as this church of Christ has been reproached with the crime of fornication, and polygamy: we declare that we believe, that one man should have one wife; and one woman, but one husband, except in case of death, when either is at liberty to marry again.”

  • October 1842 - Polygamy Denounced again by Joseph Smith [35], signed by several of the Apostles “No man shall have but one wife.”

  • March 1843 [36]Emily Dow Partridge testifies in the Temple Lot Case (1894) that she had “carnal” relations with Joseph Smith

  • March 1843 [37]William Clayton learns about plural marriage. Journals are published decades later

  • April 1843 [38]William Clayton marries Margaret Moon his first wife's sister.

  • May 1843 - Joseph marries [39]Helen Marr Kimball as recorded later by herself and Heber C Kimball (1880’s). Historians believe this was largely dynastic, but she recalls the difficulty of having a new husband as she was sealed to Joseph.

  • May 1843 [40]Joseph marries Walker sisters - testify to “knowing” Joseph Smith in the Temple Lot Case (1890s)

  • May 1843 [41]Emma learns about plural marriage after finding Joseph in bed with another wife and is said to have participated two of the marriages – Emily Partridge (1870s) Others give earlier dates but much later in the timeline. Emma denies she knows anything about polygamy before testimonies are given.

  • July 1843 – First recorded text of D&C 132 – [42]William Clayton story about Hyrum asking about revelation, Emma’s response, and the burning of the original revelation (1870s)

  • August 1843 [43]Contemporary version of D&C 132 announced to the Nauvoo High Council by Hyrum Smith. Some testify later it was the same revelation as was revealed in 1852. Hyrum says later it only related to “former times” and dealt with no modern revelation to undertake the practice.

  • November 1843 – Brigham Young takes plural wives of newly baptized [44]Cobb sisters (from the Maine Cochranite group)

  • November 1843 – [45] Emma supposedly poisons Joseph’s coffee (retold by Brigham two decades later)

  • November 1843 – Rumors circulate that Joseph approached Jane Law to be his wife (or Jane approached Joseph). [46]Elaborated upon by Eliza Ann Webb in 1875

  • December 1843 [47]John Taylor takes plural wife

  • January 1844 – [48]William Law dropped from First Presidency

  • February 1844 – [49]First “known” polygamous child born to Noble family

  • April 1844 – [50]William and Jane law excommunicated

  • May 1844 – [51]Joseph Smith excommunicates Hiram Brown for teaching polygamy in Michigan. Other people are also questioned about their polygamy (Fosters)

  • May 1844 [52]Joseph denies for the final time he has plural wives

  • June 1844 [53]William Marks claims Joseph is going to repent and abandon his secret systems and either crack down on polygamists or repent of it himself (1853)

  • June 1844 [54]Nauvoo Expositor published and destroyed

  • 27 June 1844 [55]Joseph Smith is killed along with Hyrum Smith in Carthage Jail

  • August 1844 – Brigham Young elected leader of the Church

  • September-October 1844 – Plural marriages to Apostles skyrocket

  • 1845 – Polygamy is lived as an open secret in Nauvoo, children multiply

  • 1846 – LDS leave Nauvoo for the West, all of Joseph's wives are formally remarried to him for eternity in the temple, and most married for time to either Young or

  • 1852 [56]John Taylor denies polygamy while on a mission in Europe. History of the Church published with changes, includes for the first time, William Clayton recounts.

  • 1852 [57]Polygamy revelation made public (section 132) – [58]Emma Smith denies that she ever knew about this revelation

  • 1853- [59]The Seer is published by Orson Hyde and openly advocates polygamy

  • 1856 [60]US Army marches on Deseret, to replace Brigham Young and put down polygamy.

  • 1856 [61]Parley P Pratt killed for marrying a woman who was already married in Arkansas

  • 1857 [62]Mormon Reformation – Available young women are married in some sort of union, usually polygamist. Many try to escape and run into Johnston's Army coming west.

  • 1860 [63]RLDS Church forms with Joseph Smith III at the head

  • 1860s – Emma Smith is railed against by Church authorities from this time forward. Testimonies from William Clayton start being advanced.

  • July 1862 [64]Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act is signed by Abraham Lincoln

  • 1869 [65]Joseph F Smith begins collecting affidavits because he’s “alarmed” at the vacuum of primary evidence for Joseph Smith living polygamy

  • 1876 – D&C 132 canonized, monogamy section 101 removed

  • 1875 – Wife 19 published[66]Eliza Ann Webb exposé against polygamy and ex-husband Brigham Young

  • August 1877 – Brigham Young dies

  • January 1882[67]John Taylor receives first of many revelations stating polygamy won’t be removed

  • March 1882[68]Edmunds Act puts more teeth into the Morrill Act. You can’t vote if you are a polygamist

  • October 1882 [69]John Taylor revelation demanding all Church leaders live polygamy

  • April 1884 [70]Church leaders MUST marry another wife or resign from the Church

  • May 1886 [71]Sarah Pratt’s expose published

  • September 1886 [72]John Taylor revelation to John Woolley that starts Mormon fundamentalism (published in the 1920’s)

  • March 1887[73]Edmunds-Tucker Act, allows government to take Church property and jail polygamists

  • July 1887 – John Taylor dies in hiding

  • April 1889 – Wilford Woodruff becomes Church president

  • May 1890 – Supreme Court upholds Edmunds-Tucker Act

  • October 1890 [74]Manifesto released, forbidding any new plural marriages

  • August 1891[75]Temple Lot suit. Only time that Joseph Smith is told to have "slept with" any of his wives.

  • October 1891[76]First Presidency publicly testifies of no new plural marriages (although some are still being performed)

  • 1894[77]Temple Lot Case and Trial to prove which Church was the heir of Joseph Smith. Polygamy was put on trial. Church loses.

  • 1896 – Utah statehood

  • 1898 [78]Polygamous marriages taking places in Mexico

  • October 1989 [79]Wilford Woodruff dies, Lorenzo Snow becomes president. Issues own Manifesto in 1900. Plural marriage dramatically increases.

  • February 1902 [80]Story of the “drawn sword” and Joseph Smith polygamy from Elizabeth Rollins Lightner

  • January 1904 [81]Smoot hearings to seat Senator Reed Smoot. The problem of polygamy still an issue

  • · April 1904 [82]Second Manifesto issued with stronger language, threats of excommunication

  • 1905-1909[83]Many polygamous marriages still taking place with approval from Joseph F Smith.

  • October 1905 [84]Mattias Cowley and John W Taylor resign from the Twelve for continuing to advocate polygamy and performing marriages

  • 1904-1918[85]Some polygamy ceremonies still taking place as long as Joseph F Smith approves. Any not approved are getting punished.

  • 1918 – Joseph F Smith dies, true start of monogamist church under Heber J Grant

  • 1932 [86]Council of Friends form at Short Creek, Utah. LDS Fundamentalism begins.

  • 1933 [87]Third Manifesto – J Reuben Clark – redefines celestial marriage as monogamy only. Final nail in the coffin for Mormon polygamy.

  • 1935 [88]Polygamy purges start, LDS Church begins cooperation with government to prosecute polygamists

  • 1943 [89]Apostle Richard Lyman excommunicated for polygamy

  • May 1943 – Heber J Grant passes, last president of LDS Church to live in polygamy, but was a monogamist when he became president

  • 1971 – Last approved LDS polygamous wife dies

  • October 2014 [90]LDS Church publishes essays that admit Joseph had many wives, some as young as 14

  • 2018 – Russel M Nelson becomes president. [91]He and [92]Dallin Oaks have married virgin wives in the temple after first wives die. Mormon celestial polygamy still doctrine in the next life.

For an even more thorough treatment of evidence, this site is recommended.

When one reviews this list, one can see that almost all facts that are recorded concerning Joseph Smith and polygamy are second and third hand. Most of the strongest evidence comes decades later after the need to shore up the history was established. The only account of Joseph Smith written in his own hand that supports a version of polygamy is his meeting with Sarah Ann Whitney and her parents in 1842[93].

Dear, and Beloved, Brother
and Sister, Whitney, and &c.–
I take this oppertunity to communi[c]ate, some of my feelings, privetely at this time, which I want you three Eternaly to keep in your own bosams; for my feelings are so strong for you since what has pased lately between us, that the time of my abscence from you seems so long, and dreary, that it seems, as if I could not live long in this way: and if you three would come and see me in this my lonely retreat, it would afford me great relief, of mind, if those with whom I am alied, do love me, now is the time to afford me succour, in the days of exile, for you know I foretold you of these things. I am now at Carlos Graingers, Just back of Brother Hyrams farm, it is only one mile from town, the nights are very pleasant indeed, all three of you can come and See me in the fore part of the night, let Brother Whitney come a little a head, and nock at the south East corner of the house at the window; it is next to the cornfield, I have a room intirely by myself, the whole matter can be attended to with most perfect safty, I know it is the will of God that you should comfort me now in this time of afiliction, or not at [al]l[;] now is the time or never, but I hav[e] no kneed of saying any such thing, to you, for I know the goodness of your hearts, and that you will do the will of the Lord, when it is made known to you; the only thing to be careful of; is to find out when Emma [Smith] comes then you cannot be safe, but when she is not here, there is the most perfect safty: only be careful to escape observation, as much as possible, I know it is a heroick undertakeing; but so much the greater frendship, and the more Joy, when I see you I will tell you all my plans, I cannot write them on paper, burn this letter as soon as you read it; keep all locked up in your breasts, my life depends upon it. one thing I want to see you for it is to git the fulness of my blessings sealed upon our heads, &c. you will pardon me for my earnestness on this subject when you consider how lonesome I must be, your good feelings know how to make every allowance for me, I close my letter, I think Emma [Smith, his first wife] wont come tonight[,] if she dont dont fail to come to night. I subscribe myself your most obedient, and affectionate, companion, and friend.

While this may seem on the surface tryst-worthy, owing to the attempt to hide the meeting from Emma, other narratives see his hiding from extradition as the impetus for his discussion about Emma’s absence (since bounty hunters would come around when Emma was home). It is the best we have from Joseph’s own pen considering a possibility of polygamy. It’s ambiguous at best, and only corroborative if all else remains true. It’s certainly insufficient to provide a consensus from any primary first-hand evidence.

All other contemporary first-hand evidence shows Joseph preaching against polygamy, excommunicating people for polygamy, and otherwise holding fast to monogamy. He even goes to court to fight against it, to clear his name, and possibly expose himself if he’s lying. Add to that, he organized the Relief society partially to repudiate allegations of polygamy and send church authorities on reputation missions to exonerate himself! He writes nothing down in his personal journal about secret meetings, or polygamy, which signals to some that he was never really involved in the secret quorums, ceremonies, or marriages. If it were that simple, Joseph Smith could be vindicated as a monogamist caught up on a conspiracy. That, along with testimonies from his wife, mother, brother, and sons, would provide a strong statement for his being a monogamist. However, decades of counter second and third-hand evidence have stacked up heavily against the facts known in the 1840’s. Journal entries from others often place him at the scene. It's possible much of that ex post facto evidence was either contrived or exaggerated to promote an agenda. Either way you have a conspiracy.

The narratives relating to polygamy and how it came to be are still being debated today, even if there seems to be a consensus of diverse stakeholders. Most of the players that form this consensus have serious skin in the game to prove Joseph Smith was the proponent of Mormon sexual polygamy, either as strong point for LDS succession, or in detraction to Joseph’s character. Many are familiar with those narratives, either relating to a fraud who was perpetrating sexual crimes and lying about it, or a prophet who was careful with his language, had a difficult wife, and needed to protect his teachings until the time was ripe for reveal.

There may be other ways to look at it.

Next we will look at some alternative possibilities. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] William Marks, “Epistle,” Zions Harbinger and Baneemy’s Organ 3 (July 1853): 52-54 (published in St. Louis, by C. B. Thompson). [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] Messenger and Advocate 2 [September 1836]: 381–382 [20] R. C. Evans, Autobiography of Elder R. C. Evans, 334–335 [21] W. Clayton, Journal 1840-82, April 1, 1840 [22] Stanley Kimball, 1986: Heber C. Kimball: Mormon Patriarch and Pioneer, p. 311 as reported through the Exoneration of Emma and Joseph, Part 1 [23] Joseph Smith Fought Polygamy, Volume 1, Chapter 4; The Messenger of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 1 [June 1875]: 29; Deseret News, July 1, 1874) [24] Lorenzo Snow, Deseret Semi-Weekly News, June 6, 1899 [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] Bennett, Sangamo Journal, 15 July 1842 [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] Willam Clayton, Journal 3 June 1843, Saturday [39] [40] [41] Emily Dow Partridge Young, “Incidents in the Life of a Mormon Girl,” undated manuscript, CHL, Ms 5220, 186 [42] William Clayton, 1874 [43] The Historical Record 6:227 [44] [45] Brigham Young A5:8; Gen. Conf., 7 Oct. 1866 [46] Wife no. 19", Ann Eliza Young, 1875, p, 61 [47] [48] [49] The Historical Record, Volumes 5-8, Pg 239 – Andrew Jenson [50] Cook, Lyndon W. "William Law, Nauvoo Dissenter". (10.2 MB) BYU Studies. Winter 1982. Vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 47-72 [51] Times and Seasons, vol. 5, p. 423 (1844) [52] Millennial Star No. 42 Vol. 23 p. 672-674 [53] William Marks, “Epistle,” Zions Harbinger and Baneemy’s Organ 3 (July 1853): 52-54 (published in St. Louis, by C. B. Thompson) [54] History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints volume VI (1912), pp. 430-432. The council met on June 8 and June 10 to discuss the matter. [55] [56] Three Nights' Public Discussion..., published by John Taylor, Liverpool 1850, photocopy in Sharon Banister, For Any Latter-day Saint, Fort Worth 1988, p. 289 [57] [58] Saints' Herald 65:1044–45 [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] Paul M. Edwards, Our Legacy of Faith: A Brief History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, (1991). Herald House, ISBN 0-8309-0594-4 [64] [65] [66] [67] Revelation to John Taylor, April 25–26, 1882, “Revelations given to John Taylor, 1882–1884 [68] [69] Revelation to John Taylor, April 25–26, 1882, “Revelations given to John Taylor, 1882–1884 [70] Revelation to John Taylor, April 25–26, 1882, “Revelations given to John Taylor, 1882–1884 [71] Wyl, W (1886). Mormon Portraits or the Truth about Mormon Leaders. Salt Lake City: Tribune Printing & Publishing. pp. 60–63 [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] Mary Elizabeth Lightner, Address at Brigham Young University, April 14, 1905, typescript, BYU [81] [82] [83] [84] Mormonism in Transition: A History of the Latter-day Saints, 1890–1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986) pp. 65–66 [85] [86] [87] Driggs, “Fundamentalist Attitudes,” 41. Driggs, “Twentieth-Century Polygamy,” 46. Baer, Recreating Utopia in the Desert, 37 [88] Polygamy in Utah and Surrounding Area Since the Manifesto of 1890, Chapter 5 [89] [90] [91] [92] June Dixon (1952–1998; deceased) Kristen Meredith McMain (2000–present) [93] Joseph Smith, Jr., to Newel K. Whitney, Elizabeth Ann Whitney, etc., 18 August 1842, CHL; copy of holograph in possession of the author. The text and the signature of this document are in the handwriting of Joseph Smith, Jr. This document has been reproduced in Dean C. Jessee, The Personal Writings of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Co., 1984): 539–40

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